GED Practice

GED Science Review: Cell Structures and Functions

Questions:
Directions: Choose the answer to each question.

Questions 1 through 3 refer to the following passage and diagram.

A living things, all cells have a life cycle. The cell life cycle has five stages: interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. During its life cycle, the cell grows, carries out its special jobs, and divides.
The most important part of cell division is mitosis—the division of the nucleus. During mitosis, the duplicated chromosomes in the parent divide into two identical sets. One set will go to each of two new daughter cells.

For most cells, interphase is the longest part of the life cycle. During interphase, the cell carries out many different life processes important for its growth and survival. Near the end of interphase, the cell prepares to divide. Mitosis begins with prophase. During prophase, the chromatin shortens and thickens to form chromosomes. Each chromosome is made of two identical chromatids, which attach at their centers. A network of fibers called the spindle spans the cell. The nuclear membrane dissolves. During metaphase, the chromosomes line up across the middle of the cell. They attach to the spindle fibers.

During anaphase, the chromatids in each chromosome separate. They migrate toward the poles along the spindle fibers. Once separated, the chromatids are called daughter chromosomes. The spindle pulls the two sets of daughter chromosomes to opposite ends of the cell. The last phase of mitosis is telophase. During this phase, a new nuclear membrane forms around each set of daughter chromosomes. The chromosomes become longer and thinner. With mitosis complete, the cytoplasm divides, producing two daughter cells. They enter interphase and the cell life cycle begins again.


  1. Scientists observe that mitosis occurs in most types of cells. which part of the cell theory is directly supported by this observation?
    • All cells arise from existing cells.
    • Cells are the basic units of function in organisms.
    • Cells are the basic units of structure in organisms.
    • All living organisms are made up of one or more cells
  2. Which of the following is a detail about mitosis that is supported by information in the diagram?
    • spindle fiber formation begins in prophase.
    • The nuclear membrane dissolves during prophase.
    • Near the end of interphase, the protein content of the cell increases.
    • If any of the spindle fibers get cut, mitosis cannot proceed normally.
  3. If a parent cell has 6 chromosomes at the start of interphase, how many chromosomes will each daughter cell eventually have?
    • 3
    • 6
    • 12
    • 15

      questions 4 and 5 refer to the following information and diagram.

      The diagram below describes how new blood vessels can be formed cell by cell, outside a human body.
  4. Which of the following is a conclusion supported by information shown in the diagram?
    • Connective tissue can be produced from skin cells.
    • Muscle cells can live outside the body in nutrient-rich liquid.
    • Connective tissue can produce muscle cells outside the body.
    • Muscle cells are a type of connective tissue found in blood vessels
  5. Doctors may soon be able to place a type of plastic between out nerves to help the nerve cells grow back. What is the must likely function of the plastic?
    • to carry away the waste products of the damaged nerves
    • to provide a physical support for the growing nerve cells
    • to reconnect the two cut nerves and allow them to communicate
    • to supply living nerve cells for reconnecting the damaged nerves
  6. Like living organisms, viruses contain proteins and DNA (or RNA), but they lack cell structures such as nuclei or mitochondria. Viruses are also not capable of basic cell functions, such as acquiring nutrients or producing energy. Neither are they able to reproduce without the help of the cells they infect. Which line of reasoning is supported by this information and they cell theory?
    • Viruses contain proteins and DNA (or RNA); cells also contain these molecules; therefore, viruses are living organisms.
    • All cells arise from existing cells; viruses cannot acquire nutrients or produce energy; therefore, viruses are not living organisms.
    • Cells are the basic units of life; viruses are capable of reproducing with the help of cells; therefore, viruses are living organisms.
    • All living organisms are made of one or more cells; viruses have none of the characteristics of cells; therefore, viruses are not living organisms.

      Questions 7 through 9 refer ti the following passage and diagram.

      Plant cells have certain structures that animal cells do not have. For example, plant cells have a cell wall surrounding the cell membrane. Cell walls are made of bundles of cellulose and serve to support the plant.Plant cells also gain support from large, waterfilled sacs called vacuoles. In a mature plant cell, one or two vacuoles may take up most of the space inside the cell. Animal cells rarely contain vacuoles, and when they are present, they are tiny. Also unique to plant cells are organelles called plastids. Chloroplasts are one kind of chlorophyll. Plants need chlorophyll to carry out the sugar-making process of photosynthesis. Chromoplasts are another type of plastid containing pigment. Yellow, orange, and red Leucoplasts are a third type of plastid. They make starches and oils for the plant.The region of all cells. within the membrane that includes the fluid, and all of the organelles except the nucleus, is called the cytoplasm.
  7. Based on the information in the passage and the diagram of a plant cell, identify the structure that surrounds the cytoplasm and is shared by both plant and animal cells.
    ____________________
  8. Based on the information in the passage, which type of structure gives daffodil and rose petals their color?
    • cell wall
    • leucoplasts
    • mitochondria
    • chromoplasts
  9. Lisa did not water her plants for three weeks, and they wilted. Which of the following is a hypothesis supported by this observation?
    • The cellulose in the cell walls disintegrated.
    • The leucoplasts produced too many starches.
    • The vacuoles shrank as their water supply was used up.
    • The chloroplasts lost chlorophyll and stopped functioning.
Answer:

  1. All cells arise from existing cells.
  2. The nuclear membrane dissolves during prophase.
  3. 6
  4. Muscle cells can live outside the body in nutrient-rich liquid.
  5. to provide a physical support for the growing nerve cells
  6. All living organisms are made of one or more cells; viruses have none of the characteristics of cells; therefore, viruses are not living organisms.
  7. cell membrane
  8. chromoplasts
  9. The vacuoles shrank as their water supply was used up.






Reference:


Complete Test Preparation for the GED Test 2014 by Steck-Vaughn